The main section
of Nova Scotia is often considered synonymous with "Acadia".
1604 to 1713
First settled by the French eager to make money, within a few decades colonization and settling down to raise families took hold. Over its first century, Acadia changed hands multiple times. It was called Nova Scotia as early as 1621 when Sir William Alexander got a charter to develop 'New Scotland.' The local population continued to call it Acadia until the time of the deportations.
< Acadia, 1733
1713 to 1763
In 1710, England took firm hold of Acadia in the Treaty of Utrecht. Though Acadians continued to live there, the English preferred to have its own (English-speaking, Protestant) settlers. It took them several decades, but finally in the mid 1750s they started colonizing the area with their own people. In conjunction with this, Charles Lawrence decided to deport the Acadians. Two large deportations (in 1755 and 1758) and Acadians fleeing to French Canada practically emptied the land of Acadians. Charles Morris gives an account & maps of Nova Scotia in 1761. Then the peace treaty came in 1763, Acadians were allowed to return.
Acadia, 1757 >
1763 to the
Most did not return for various reasons. Those that did found that their fine farming land they had cultivated for over a century had been given to the English settlers and the Acadians would get the leftovers. Still, some did return.
There are several 'pockets' of Acadian descendants
found in Nova Scotia today. In some cases, you may find Acadian names
but not the culture. This occurs in urban areas (ie. Halifax), in
the former Beaubassin area (Minudie, Maccan, Nappan), and the communities
of Pomquet, Tracadie, and Havre-Boucher. They
can be found at:
Clare (Digby County) has perhaps the largest, most "Acadian"
group on the French Shore. At the time of the return
of the Acadians in the province after 1763, the lands they had previously
occupied were now settled by the New England Planters whom had arrived
after 1760. The Nova Scotia government allowed the Acadians to re-establish
themselves provided they settled in areas other than their former homelands.
Some arrived on the shores of present-day St. Mary's Bay, in Digby County
to become primarily fishermen who supplemented their livelihood with small-scale
farming, lumbering and boat building. Joseph Dugas and his family were
the first to arrive in 1768. In subsequent years, other pioneer families
arrived. Family names included: Amirault, Belliveau, Blinn, Boudreau, Comeau,
Deveau, Doucet, Gaudet, Jeddry, LeBlanc, Lombard, Maillet, Melanson, Muise,
Pothier, Robichaud, Saulnier, Thériault, Thibault, Thibodeau and
Thimot. Today, the Municipality of Clare is the only one of its kind to
operate in French within the province. When in the area, be
sure to check out Université Sainte-Anne (which contains an Acadian
Cultural and Genealogical Centre), St. Mary's church, the Acadian Museum
and Tourism Office in Meteghan (which also has a Collège de l'Acadie
Argyle (Yarmouth County) has a number of Acadian communities
in the former Pobomcoup/Cap Sable area. Some of these towns are Pubnico,
Quinan, Belleville, and Sainte-Anne-du-Ruisseau. Acadian surnames
in this area include: Amirault, Babin, Belliveau, Boucher, Boudreau, Bourque,
Corporon, Cottreau, d'Entremont, d'Eon, Deveau, Doucette, Dulong, Jacquard,
Landry, LeBlanc, Moulaison, Muise, Pothier, Surette, Richard, and Vacon.
When in the area, be sure to check out the Acadian Historical Village at
Cheticamp (Inverness County) and nearby villages, first settled
by the Acadian "Fourteen Elders" in 1782. Acadian surnames in the
area include: Aucoin, Boudreau, Bourgeois, Camus, Chiasson, Cormier, Delaney,
Deveau, Doucet, Fiset, Gallant, Gaudet, Haché, Harris, Larade, LaPierre,
LeBlanc, LeFort, LeLièvre, LeVert, Maillet, Muise, Poirier, Roach,
and Romard. When in the area, be sure to check out the Acadian Museum.
Chezzecook (near Halifax) was probably first settled by Acadians
who had been held at Halifax until the Treaty in 1763. They
were later joined by Acadians from Isle Royale and Isle Madame. When
in the area, be sure to check out the Acadian House Museum in this area.
Isle Madame (Richmond County) was repopulated with Acadians
in the later 1700s (though there had been some settlement there before
the Deportation). Some of the towns in the area include: Arichat,
West Arichat, Port Royal, D'Escousse, Poulamon, Rivière-Bourgeois,
Martinique, L'Ardoise, and Saint-Pierre. The family names The Acadian surnames
in this area include: Babin, Benoît, Boudreau, Briand, Forgeron,
Fougère, Girroir, Gerroir, Gerrior, Landry, Levandier, LaLeucher,
LeBlanc, Marchand, Martell, Mombourquette, Pâté, Poirier,
Richard, Samson, Thériault, and Thibeau. When in the area,
be sure to check out the Acadian Cultural Center and Nicholas Denys Museum.
La Picasse has a College de l'Acadie Learning Centre.
Antigonish County has several villages settled by Acadians
after they were allowed to return to Acadia in the 1770s and 1780s.
These include Pomquet, Tracadie and Havre Boucher. Acadian-related surnames
in the area include: Barriault, Begin, Bellefontaine, Benoit, Boucher,
Boudreau, Briand, Broussard, Charpentier, Cornu, Coté, Daigle, DeCoste,
Deon, Jacquet dit DesLauriers, Doiron, Drouillet, Fougere, Girroir, Landry,
LaMarre, LeBlanc, Levandier, LeParou, Mathe, Maillet, Melanson, Meunier,
Morell, Phillipard, Rennie, Roger, Roi, Toupain, Venedam, Vincent, and
Guysborough County has Acadian descendants that resettled
there from Chezzetcook. They established the towns of Larry's River,
Charlos Cove, and Port Felix. Acadian surnames in this area include: Bellefontaine,
Benoit, Boudreau, David, Déon, Doiron, Fougère, Gerrior,
Mannette, Pellerin, Pettipas, Richard, and Roi.
Acadian Places of Interest in Modern-Day Nova Scotia
NS: • Fort
Anne National Historic Site
Canada's oldest Historic Site,
it marks the location of Port Royal ... the "capital" of Acadia
A museum displays the history of the fort.
Open 9-6; mid-May through mid-October,
by appointment the rest of the year
Adults: $2.50; Children: $1.10 • Port
Royal National Historic Site
The highlight of the location
is a reconstruction of the early 17th century structures (the Habitation)
built by the earliest French settlers.
Open 9-6; mid-May through mid-October
Adults: $2.75; Children: $1.35
Cheticamp, NS: • Acadian
The museum has a small display
Acadian artifacts, and also has demonstrations of wool carding, spinning,
weaving and rug hooking. There is a craft shop with locally made
hooked rugs. Acadian-style foods are also sold.
Open 9-5 (May-June), 8-9 (July-August),
This is a cultural and information
center. It is home to La Société Saint-Pierre and other
community organizations. There you can find the genealogy and history
of the Acadians at Cheticamp, as well as a collection of fine artifacts
(including the LeFort tapestries).
NS: • Évangéline
- The Musical drama
Though not an historic location,
you should enjoy this portrayal of Longfellow's classic tale, given throught
the summer months.
Adults: : $15; Seniors: $13;
Falmouth, NS: • Ste. Famille Cemetery
This restoration of the Acadian
Ste. Famille parish cemetery has been underway for three years.
Louisbourg, NS: • Fortress
of Louisbourg [Note: There are a couple more Louisbourg-related
links on the LINKS page]
This is a reconstruction of
the 18th century French fortress. Though not an Acadian structure,
it is certain that some Acadians visited there and many more had dealings
with the community.
Open 9:30-5 (9-7 in July &
August); May 1 through October 3
Adults: $11; Children: $5.50
St. Joseph du
Moine, NS: • Aucoin
An Acadian descendant's home
built in the 1890s.
Interested in the preservation
and interpretation of the historical and natural history of Colchester
County. This area included the Acadian area of Cobequid.
Open 10-12 & 2-5 (T-F);
NS: • The Acadian
Museum & Father d'Entremont Arcives
This museum, by the La Socitete
Historique Acadienne de Pubnico-Ouest, contains artifacts of Acadian culture
and is located in the old Cape Sable area.
Open 9-5 (except Sunday: 12:30-4:30);
mid-June through mid-September
Adults: $2; Children: free • Le
Village historique acadien de la Nouvelle-Écosse
A village of replicated and
original Acadian buildings is being put together in southern Nova Scotia.
It is scheduled to open in the summer of 1999.
Open 10-5; early June through
Adults: $4; Students: $2; Seniors:
$3.50; Family: $10; Children 6 and under: free
Windsor, NS: • Fort
a couple of images here]
This fort was built by the English
around 1750 in the Pisiquid area of Acadia. You can still visit the
blockhouse. • West
Hants Historical Society Museum
The preserves artifacts and
historical information related to Hants County, Nova Scotia ... which includes
some Acadian material.
Open 9-5 (M-S) June -
September, and also 11-5 (Sun) in June - August
Wolfville, NS: • Grand
Pre National Historic Site
The site contains 14 acres of
formal gardens, statues, a 19th-century blacksmith's shop and a reconstruction
of the Grand Pre church of the Acadians.
Open 9-6; mid-May through
Adults: $2.50; Children: $1.10
Pre Historic Settlement
Tentative plans were made to
put together an Acadian village next to the historic site. As far
as I know, it was never undertaken. Any news on this project would
be appreciated. The link takes you to a page on the idea.