had been taken prisoner by LeBorgne in 1653 and kept at Port Royal, estimated
that there were 270 in Port Royal in 1654. He described the situation at
Port Royal at that time. [Denys, Description,
Robert Sedgewick of Boston had been ordered
by Robert Cromwell to attack New Holland (New York). But after he
got everything ready, a peace treaty was signed between the English and
the Dutch. Since he was "all dressed up with nowhere to go," he attacked
Acadia in August 1654 and destroyed most of the settlements (even though
it was peacetime) ... including Port Royal, La Have, and the Saint John
River. He left the area, but had appointed an Acadian council
with Guillaume Trahan in charge. [Clark, p. 113]
The seigniorial system was still going strong.
LeBorgne was still making his claim against Denys and LaTour. When
Denys got his royal grant to the St. Lawrence area in 1654, LeBorgne had
to give St. Peters and Nipisiguit back to him. A letter by Meneval on Nov.
7, 1689 shows that Belle Isle was the seigneur of most of the Port Royal area.
Over the years, the Acadian seigneurs like
LeBorgne really didn't live up to their part of the deal. They were
supposed to bring settlers to the New World and to take care of them. There's
no record of them building mills or bake-ovens. They basically just
tried to collect rent (cens et rentes). Corvees or charging
for fishing or cutting lumber are not mentioned. [Clark,
p. 120] The system ended (as far as the British were concerned)
when Agathe de LaTour married a British soldier named Campbell in 1733
and received 2000 pounds for her "rights." [Clark, p. 119]
The Acadians weren't exactly the best tenants.
They'd pay token amounts unless heavily pressured. The seigneurs
usually got little for the land. The Acadians were almost like freeholders,
and paid little taxes. A map of the seigneuries was done in 1700
and sent to France, but no one can find it. Since their days in France,
the Acadians thought that the only way to have land was get it from
a seigneur, who got it from the king. Acadians also probably thought
the land they farmed was the seigneur's, and therefore the king's.
In Acadia, grants were poorly described and often overlapped, leading to
conflicts. [Clark, p. 114] We find
numerous records of legal cases brought by the Acadians; they, like
the Canadians, were very litigious.
In 1657 or 1658, Sir Thomas Temple came to Acadia
aboard the Satisfaction. He was given the governorship
by Commonwealth authority in 1657 (which was confirmed after the Restoration
in 1662). His grant of Acadia came from Cromwell, and was shared
by LaTour and William Crowne. LaTour soon sold his share and moved to Cap Sable to live out his days.
Temple kicked out some of LeBorgne’s men
at LaHave in 1658 and some French fishermen at Port Rossignol in 1664.
Temple established his presence at Rossignol and at Mirligueche (Lunenburg),
but Temple's control of the colony probably only extended to the immediate
neighborhood of Port-Royal and a few other sites. Temple himself lived
in Boston and seldom visited Acadia. [Clark, p. 107]
We find an Order of the Council of State (Apr.
14, 1657) that states:
A convoy to be provided for several ships
bound to Newfoundland, and instructions given to the
commander to make one of them ready with all speed to carry Col. Thomas
Temple and his company
to his plantation in Nova Scotia or Acadia, in order to his settling in
the forts and government there,
according to his patent and commission from his Highness.
[Interregnum, Entry Bk., Vol. CV., p. 790]
Also, there is a message (Nov. 12, 1657) from
Capt. Peter Butler of the Satisfaction to the Navy commanders.
After receiving Col. [Thos.] Temple and his company on board, sailed for
Boston, New England, and
then made for St. John's Fort and Port Royal, intending for Newfoundland;
but meeting with violent
storms, and getting short of provisions, returned for England; neither
he nor his company are ashamed
to speak of the goodness of the Lord in preserving them from such great
[References. Vo. 174. 69]
Supposedly, there was a list of colonists
of 1658 that was around in the 1950s, but it cannot be found.
Dulong discusses the missing list at his Michel
According to a document in the Boston archives,
Pierre LaVerdure, his wife Priscilla Mellanson, and their sons may have
been aboard that ship. Though the parents and possibly one son were
thought to have moved on to New England, two of the sons ... Charles and
Pierre ... stayed in Acadia. They adopted their mother's name (Melancon/Melanson).
When the Grand Pre area was settled, Pierre was a captain and a leader
in that community. In fact, government orders were sent through him.
Other settlers that may have settled in this
period were Laurent Granger and Roger Caissy.
Though the English didn’t make a real impact
on Acadia, it did produce a time where the settlers had little contact
with the French, but more contact with the New Englanders. Some learned
a bit of English to communicate. They learned to get along with the
English. And those born in this period were those in charge once
England took over for good in 1710. Many of the first generation
of Acadians were born at this time. [Daigle, p. 23]
In 1666, France made the decision not to send
more colonists to the New World. They thought it “would not be prudent
to depopulate its kingdom to populate Canada.” [PAC, C11A,
2:199, “Colbert a Talon”, Jan. 5, 1666] Meanwhile, many English
were still making the trip to avoid religious persecution and for economic
success. In 1670, Acadia had about 400 people, while Massachusetts
France regained Acadia after the Treaty of
Breda in 1667. LeBorgne’s son Alexandre
LeBorgne de Bellisle became governor from Canso/Baie Verte to New England.
Temple caused enough problems and delays that the official change of hands
didn't come till 1670.
Hector d’Andigne de Grandfontaine received
the surrender of the English forts at Port Royal and Jemseg in 1670, and
of the Cape Sable area a bit later. Some of the French may have headed
back to France back in 1654. [Clark, p. 108]
Most of the 1670 population had been born
in Acadia. The Minas settlement started between the Riviere St. Antoine
(Riviere des Habitants/Cornwallis River) and the Gaspereau River.
It spread to beyond the Canard, Petit Habitant, and Pereau to the foot
of the North Mountain. It also extended to Pisiguid and Cobequid.
At Chignecto Bay, settlement began at Beaubassin and spread to the Missaguash,
La Planche, Hebert, and Maccan, Aulac, Tantramar, Shepody, Petitcodiac,
and Memramcook rivers, the marsh of the Minudie peninsula, etc. [Clark,